In 1980, the Indian government opened Polyester Filament Yarn manufacturing to the private sector. Dhirubhai Ambani applied for a license to set up a PFY manufacturing plant. In spite of stiff competition from Tatas, Birlas and 43 others, Dhirubhai was awarded the licence. To help him build the PFY plant, Dhirubhai pulled his eldest son Mukesh out of Stanford where he was studying for his MBA. Mukesh Ambani then continued to work for Reliance and did not return to his university program after that. He led Reliance’s backward integration from textiles into polyester fibres and further into petrochemicals, beginning in 1981.